En este trabajo se estudian los movimientos sociales que luchan por la justicia social, racial, económica y ambiental en los Estados Unidos. El conocimiento sobre movimientos sociales define al campo como enfocado en los actores colectivos excluidos, que luchan por derechos, recursos y poder (Jenkins, 1985; McAdam, 1999; Piven, 2006; Tarrow, 2011). En este ensayo retomamos este tema originario en la investigación de la acción colectiva, al resaltar las principales formas de exclusión que conducen a la movilización popular a gran escala en Estados Unidos contemporáneo. La exclusión es, con frecuencia, el punto de partida para la formación del movimiento social, aunque una indagación más específica de las estructuras institucionales que generan divisiones sociales contribuye a nuestra comprensión de la probabilidad de la aparición de resistencia colectiva. En este capítulo realizamos una clasificación más precisa de la exclusión (legal, ambiental, económica y cultural) y de las respuestas consiguientes de los movimiento sociales.
Using an innovative survey of protest participants and nonparticipants from five major street demonstrations in Mexico City in 2011 and 2012, this study tests the assumption that influences on protest participation vary across different types of events; namely, ritual demonstrations and reactive protests. The comparison is based on two assumptions: that these are two of the dominant forms of protest in contemporary Latin America, and that specifying the context for different types of social movement participation provides a better understanding of the individual mobilization process for groups seeking to defend their rights or gain new benefits. The comparative analyses reveal some crucial differences. Political interest and previous political experience are more influential in the decision to take part in reactive demonstrations. For ritual demonstrations, the decision to participate tends to be driven more by personal and organizational connections.
The Sociology of Development Handbook gathers essays that reflect the range of debates in development sociology and in the interdisciplinary study and practice of development. The essays address the pressing intellectual challenges of today, including internal and international migration, transformation of political regimes, globalization, changes in household and family formations, gender dynamics, technological change, population and economic growth, environmental sustainability, peace and war, and the production and reproduction of social and economic inequality.
Table of Contents
Introduction: A Manifesto for the Sociology of Development - Samuel Cohn and Gregory Hooks
I. EXPLAINING DEVELOPMENT: SOCIOLOGICAL INSIGHTS
1. Engendering Development: The Evolution of a Field of Research - Valentine M. Moghadam 2. Population and Development - Laszlo J. Kulcsar 3. Strengthening the Ties between Environmental Sociology and Sociology of Development - Jennifer E. Givens, Brett Clark, and Andrew K. Jorgenson 4. The Sources of Socioeconomic Development - Adam Szirmai
II. HUMAN CAPABILITIES: INSTITUTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT
5. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Global North and Global South - Jeffrey T. Jackson, Kirsten Dellinger, Kathryn McKee, and Annette Trefzer 6. Magic Potion/Poison Potion: The Impact of Women’s Economic Empowerment versus Disempowerment for Development in a Globalized World - Rae Lesser Blumberg 7. Land Use and the Great Acceleration in Human Activities: Political and Economic Dynamics - Thomas K. Rudel 8. Age Structure and Development: Beyond Malthus - David L. Brown and Parfait Eloundou-Enyegue 9. Development, Demographic Processes, and Public Health - Joshua Stroud, Philip Anglewicz, and Mark VanLandingham 10. Education and Development - David B. Bills
III. DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ACCOUNTS
11. The Sociology of Subnational Development: Conceptual and Empirical Foundations - Linda Lobao 12. Sociological Perspectives on Uneven Development: The Making of Regions - Ann R. Tickamyer and Anouk Patel-Campillo 13. Migration and Development: Virtuous and Vicious Cycles - Sara R. Curran 14. Tertiary Education and Development: Strategies of Global South Countries to Meet Growing Tertiary Demand - Mary M. Kritz 15. Migrant Networks, Immigrant and Ethnic Economies, and Destination Development - Kim Korinek and Peter Loebach
IV. BUILDING STATES AND FAILING STATES: DEVELOPMENT TRIUMPHS AND DISASTERS
16. The State and Development - Samuel Cohn 17. Women, Democracy, and the State - Kathleen M. Fallon and Jocelyn Viterna 18. War and Development: Questions, Answers, and Prospects for the Twenty-first Century - Gregory Hooks 19. Neoliberalism, the Origins of the Global Crisis, and the Future of States - Richard Lachmann 20. Crisis and the Rise of China - Ho-fung Hung 21. Conflict and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa - Zoe Marriage 22. Social Movements and Economic Development - Paul Almeida
V. GLOBAL COMPLEXITIES AND LOCAL CONTEXTS: NEW PARADIGMS FOR EXPLAINING DEVELOPMENT
23. Globalization and Development - Nina Bandelj and Elizabeth Sowers 24. Transitions to Capitalisms: Past and Present - Rebecca Jean Emigh 25. Quantitative Growth and Economic Development through History - Rosemary L. Hopcroft 26. The Great Divergence: Why Did Industrial Capitalism Emerge in Europe, Not China? - Dingxin Zhao 27. Global Commodity Chains and Development - Jennifer Bair and Matthew Mahutga
Luego de seis años en los que la obra de Paul Almeida, Olas de movilización popular, ha estado contribuyendo al estudio de los movimientos sociales salvadoreños, UCA Editores publica otra investigación suya: Neoliberalismo y movimientos populares en Centroamérica. En su versión inglesa, fue premiada en 2015 (Distinguished Scholarship Award - Pacific Sociolgical Association) y en 2016 (Honorable Mention por la American Sociological Association - Sociology of Development Section).
Almeida Analiza en este libro las luchas populares en el istmo, entendidas como "campañas de protesta", las cuales se han enfilado en las últimas décadas en contra de los cambios económicos ligados a la globalización neoliberal (privatizaciones, libre comercio, incremento de precios, etc.). A diferencia de las movilizaciones colectivas de largo plazo, las campañas de protesta se enfocan en políticas particulares, su movilización suele ser efímera y, por lo general, tienden a ser menos espontáneas que los disturbios porque implican, de parte de los actores involucrados, un cálculo de medios y estrategias.
Asociaciones laborales, grupos de mujeres, indígenas, partidos de opsocisión, movimientos estudiantiles y de maestros, ONG, entre muchos otros, son los sujetos principales del libro. En ocho capítulos, el autor estudia no solo el caso de cada país centroamericano, sino también examina, de manera comparativa, las coaliciones y las alianzas multisectoriales entre aquellos actores, cuyas formas de resistencia además de ser pacíficas, en ocasiones se han tornado disructivas con el sistema hegemónico.
This handbook covers social movement activities in Latin American countries that have had profound consequences on the political culture of the region. It examines the developments of the past twenty years, such as a renewed upswing in popular mobilization, the ending of violent conflicts and military governments, new struggles and a relatively more democratic climate. It shows that, from southern Chiapas to Argentina, social movements in the 1990s and especially in the 2000s, have reached new heights of popular participation. There is a lack of research on the politics of this region in the contemporary era of globalization, this volume partially fills the void and offers a rich resource to students, scholars and the general public in terms of understanding the politics of mass mobilization in the early twenty-first century. The contributors each address social movement activity in their own nation and together they present a multidisciplinary perspective on the topic. Each chapter uses a case study design to bring out the most prominent attributes of the particular social struggle(s), for instance the main protagonists in the campaigns, the grievances of the population and the outcomes of the struggles. This Handbook is divided into seven substantive themes, providing overall coherence to a broad range of social conflicts across countries, issues and social groups. These themes include: 1) theory of Latin American social movements; 2) neoliberalism; 3) indigenous struggles; 4) women’s movements; 5) movements and the State; 6) environmental movements; and 7) transnational mobilizations.
Historical shifts in global economic formations shape the strategies of resistance movements in the global South. Neoliberal forms of economic development over the past thirty years in Central America have weakened traditional actors sponsoring popular mobilization such as labor unions and rural cooperatives. At the same time, the free market reforms produced new threats to economic livelihood and well-being throughout the region. The neoliberal measures that have generated the greatest levels of mass discontent include rising prices, privatization, labor flexibility laws, mining projects, and free trade. This article analyzes the role of emerging anti-neoliberal political parties in alliance with popular movements in Central America. Countries with already existing strong anti-systemic parties in the initial phases of the global turn to neoliberalism in the late twentieth century resulted in more efficacious manifestations of social movement partyism in the twenty-first century resisting free market globalization.
The mass mobilizations against neoliberal reforms are rooted in the weakening of the state-led development model and the erosion of social citizenship rights. At the same time, infrastructures created by the developmental state provide the organizational capacity to resist market-driven globalization. The study develops a conceptual framework for understanding the major arenas of state-led development in the twentieth century in relation to the infrastructures and organizations that mobilize social movement campaigns against neoliberalism in the twenty-first century. Special attention is given to public education, health care, public utilities, state subsidies, and transportation networks as laying the foundation for civil society's ability to collectively defend social protections granted in the preglobalization era in the global South.
Almeida, Paul, and Allen Cordero Ulate. 2015. “Social Movements Across Latin America”. Pp. 3–10 in Handbook of Social Movements across Latin America, edited by Paul D Almeida and Allen Cordero Ulate. Springer.
Paul Almeida’s comparative study of the largest social movement campaigns that existed between 1980 and 2013 in every Central American country (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama) provides a granular examination of the forces that spark mass mobilizations against state economic policy, whether those factors are electricity rate hikes or water and health care privatization. Many scholars have explained connections between global economic changes and local economic conditions, but most of the research has remained at the macro level. Mobilizing Democracy contributes to our knowledge about the protest groups "on the ground" and what makes some localities successful at mobilizing and others less successful. His work enhances our understanding of what ingredients contribute to effective protest movements as well as how multiple protagonists—labor unions, students, teachers, indigenous groups, nongovernmental organizations, women’s groups, environmental organizations, and oppositional political parties—coalesce to make protest more likely to win major concessions.
Based on extensive field research, archival data of thousands of protest events, and interviews with dozens of Central American activists, Mobilizing Democracy brings the international consequences of privatization, trade liberalization, and welfare-state downsizing in the global South into focus and shows how persistent activism and network building are reactivated in these social movements. Almeida enables our comprehension of global and local politics and policy by answering the question, "If all politics is local, then how do the politics of globalization manifest themselves?" Detailed graphs and maps provide a synthesis of the quantitative and qualitative data in this important study. Written in clear, accessible prose, this book will be invaluable for students and scholars in the fields of political science, social movements, anthropology, Latin American studies, and labor studies.
Almeida, Paul D. 2013. “War and social movements”. Pp. 1391-1394 in The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements, vol. 3, edited by D Snow, D Della Porta, B Klandermans, and D McAdam. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
This chapter analyzes the three largest insurgencies with majority Indigenous participation in Mesoamerica in the twentieth century and the ensuing trajectories of native peoples' movements in these uprisings' aftermath. It reviews the 1932 peasant uprising in El Salvador, the Guatemalan insurgency from the 1970s to the 1990s, and the 1994 Chiapas rebellion in southern Mexico and the subsequent movement it generated. The essay examines why Indigenous peoples engaged at times in radical and revolutionary tactics in collective action efforts to defend their rights, while in the contemporary period we observe less violent and confrontational agendas and strategies. Furthermore, the chapter analyzes political opportunities and various forms of threat (including state repression) so as to understand the divergent framing of Indigenous demands and forms of struggle over time and across cases. The state's actions are a crucial dimension in defining what type of strategies these movements are likely to employ.
Using a unique dataset on the geographic distribution of reported protest events from local sources, the study explains the variation in community-level mobilization in response to neoliberal reforms in two countries in the global periphery. Building on insights from macro, cross-national studies of protests related to market reforms, this article highlights local structural conditions that more likely generate popular contention in poorer countries. Count regression models show that localities with greater levels of state and community infrastructure (highways, administrative offices, universities, NGOs and local chapters of oppositional parties) were associated with heightened collective action opposing the privatization of health care and public utilities. These state and community infrastructures were shaped by national contexts in the era of state-led development preceding the current epoch of accelerated globalization.